īśāvāsyam-idaṃ sarvaṃ yatkiṃca jagatyāṃ jagat |
tena tyaktena bhuñjīthā mā gṛdhaḥ kasya sviddhanam || 1 ||
idaṃ sarvam = all this. All this is of the form of objects of experience (bhogya) and subjects of experience (bhogtā).
īśā = by the controller. The word 'īśa' denotes the ability to control or govern (niyamana-sāmarthya). The Mahānārāyaṇa Upaniṣat also said 'patiṃ viśvasya ātmeśvaram' - the Lord of the universe who governs/controls Himself.
vāsyam = pervaded or dwelled.
All this is pervaded by a controller.
yacca kiñcij-jagat-sarvaṃ dṛṣyate śrūyate~pi vā |
antar-bahiśca tatsarvaṃ vyāpya nārāyaṇaḥ sthitaḥ ||
[Whatever is seen and heard in all universe is pervaded inside and out by Nārāyaṇa.]
Śrī Viṣṇu Purāṇa:
sarvatrāsau samastaṃ ca vasatyatreti vai yataḥ |
tataḥ sa vāsudeveti vidvadbhiḥ paripaṭhyate ||
[He dwells everywhere and in everything. Therefore, the learned call Him by the name 'Vāsudeva'.]
yatkiṃca jagatyāṃ jagat = Whatever undergoes modification in the universe.
The objects of experience undergo modification in their essence (svarūpa) itself. The subjects of experience undergo modification in the expanse of their consciousness (jñāna-saṅkoca-vikāśa) but not in their essence. It is to be noted that the objects of experience are non-sentient, while the subject of experience is sentient.
All that we see undergoing modification in this universe are pervaded by a controller.
indriyāṇi mano buddhiḥ sattvaṃ tejo balaṃ dhṛtiḥ |
vāsudevātmakānyāhuḥ kṣetraṃ kṣetrajña eva ca ||
[Both the field (object) of experience (kṣetra) and the subject of experience (kṣetrajña), including the senses, mind, intellect, existence, brilliance, strength, and stability, are said to have Vāsudeva for their self. ]
It follows that the relationship between Paramātmā (Supreme Self) and the universe consisting of Jīvātmā-s (Individual selves) & Prakṛti (Nature) is that of controller and the controlled. īśa-īśitavya-saṃbandhaḥ. The mode of control is through the pervading or in-dwelling attribute of the Brahman.
The first half of the hymn conveys the sub-ordination of all kṣetra and kṣetrajña to the control of Vāsudeva. Therefore, they teach nārāyaṇa-pāratantrya of all universe.
tena = by this. By realizing nārāyaṇa-pāratantrya of everything ...
What is the purpose of this realization? It is detachment or vairāgya. There is attachment as long as there is the view that one is independent, and the objects are also stand-alone and independent. One tries to manipulate everything to one's advantage in a selfish manner. But, by understanding the nārāyaṇa-pāratantrya of everything, one abandons attachment and cultivates vairāgya. This is indicated by tyaktena = by leaving (attachment).
bhuñjīthāḥ. All this is to be enjoyed with a sense of detachment. Enjoyment and detachment in cohesion! One does not have to go to the forest abandoning everything or starve oneself or punish oneself with cruel practices. One shall consume whatever is necessary to live a good life. But, one shall not be attached to these objects since both the experiencer and the experienced are subordinate to a controller.
To experience what is necessary with detachment is logical because what is being enjoyed is clearly not one's own possession. Even the enjoyer did not bring oneself into existence. All this is pervaded and controlled by Vāsudeva. So, they belong to Vāsudeva. This is emphasized next: mā gṛdhaḥ kasya sviddhanam. Do not covet the possession of another. The 'another' is Vāsudeva. Everything is His possession. Coveting His possession implies assuming that "I am independent" or that "These objects exist for my sake to be gained, possessed and enjoyed". This is called ahaṃkāra and mamakāra. The correct way to think is "I and all these objects belong to Vāsudeva since He pervades and controls all of us". One commits an act of stealing by assuming that one is independent or that there are objects for one's possession.
Yama told his servants:
"paramasuhṛdi bāndhave kalatre suta-vanitā-pitṛ-matṛ-bhṛtya-varge |
śaṭhamatir-upayāti yo~arthatrṣṇāṃ puruṣa-paśurna hi vāsudevabhaktaḥ ||"
[A person with the mind of a rascal attains covetousness towards friends, relatives, family, children, spouse, father, mother and servants. Such a person is a human animal (for there is no difference in mindset), and is not a devotee of Vāsudeva. ]